The offenders are believed to have targeted the disused Fletcher Methodist Church, in Court Street, Madeley, overnight between January 4 and 5.
It is not known how the culprits broke into the Grade Two listed building, but while inside the church they smashed windows and also damaged lamp shades and a wooden bannister.
Police do not believe that anything was stolen from inside the church during the incident, but PCSO Naomi Heale for Woodside and Madeley Safer Neighbourhood Team said they believe the vandals have caused "thousands of pounds worth of damage”.
A spokesman for West Mercia Police added: "Police are investigating a report of an unknown offender or offenders gaining entry to a disused church on Court Street, sometime between 5pm on Thursday, January 4, and 9am on January 5.
"Damage was caused to windows and a wooden bannister inside the church, but it is not thought that anything was taken at this time.”
The disused Madeley church is currently listed for sale by Andrew Dixon and Company, based in Telford.
Anyone with information about the incident at Fletcher Methodist Church is asked to call West Mercia Police on 101, quoting incident reference number 360S of January 8. Alternatively, contact Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555111 or at crimestoppers-uk.org