It would replace Shawbirch Medical Centre, which has more than 13,000 patients.
An outline business case, which has been sent to Telford & Wrekin Clinical Commissioning Group, says its patient list has grown by 1,500 since December 2016 and continues to rise.
It is expected to grow by 5,000 patients in the next 10 years, with plans in the pipeline to build hundreds of new homes in the area.
The plans state that the existing premises is generally considered to be adequate, but it fails to provide appropriate facilities for car parking, patient confidentiality – particularly in reception areas as the practice lacks an interview room – and minor surgery.
It says the lack of available space is preventing the practice from taking on additional services.
The outline business case states that community services have had to be moved away from the practice to alternative accommodation because of the need to expand clinical areas to meet basic patient service need and capacity.
It says: "The new building would allow the potential to re-introduce on site district nursing and health visiting services further reinforcing multi disciplinary team working.
"This not only has patient benefits but also has benefits for the wider health economy.
"The practice also has aspirations to provide mental health services, respiratory clinics and a neurology service from the new premises, benefitting the neighbourhood cluster and possibly the wider Telford area."
Shawbirch Medical Centre opened in 1991.
The plans state that the ability to develop the building on its existing site has been exhausted as the building has been extended and is now constructed to the maximum possible size for the site.
The practice is also affiliated to Keele University for medical training but has to limit the number of medical students who can be taught due to lack of rooms and the pressure this puts on clinicians.
The outline business case states that a suitable site has been identified within half a mile of the existing surgery, off Brandon Avenue.